Monday, September 22, 2014

真相网:“余英时:中共不能代表中国文化” (今天共有3篇文章)

真相网:“余英时:中共不能代表中国文化” (今天共有3篇文章)


余英时:中共不能代表中国文化

Posted: 21 Sep 2014 09:29 AM PDT

真相网2014.9.21】知名中国历史学家余英时周五在台北举行新闻发布会,他强调中国共产党不能代表中华文化,中、美的国力碰撞不是文明冲突,而是极权和反极权之争。

余英时获颁由台湾企业家尹衍樑创立的「唐奖汉学奖」。他日前抵达台北,周五中午发表了一场专题演讲,名为「中国史研究的自我反思」。

演讲结束后,余英时接受了记者访问,畅谈历史和政治。余英时首先被问道如何评价中国政府近年在世界各地广设的「孔子学院」

余英时说,孔子学院实际上与孔子毫不相干。而是中国政府「找几个会教中文的人」,藉着投入大量的经费,让美国及其它国家一部分大学屈从中国的要求。这本质上还是政治性行动,对学术思想发展起不了什麽大作用,更不可能代替美国原本中文系教学。

对于中共政权也开始倡议中国传统思想和文化,余英时半开玩笑地说他最近根本不敢讲儒家了,因为讲儒家等于就和共产党呼应起来了。这让今天讲儒家的人陷入一个很大的困境。「对共产党提倡儒家,我有一个说法叫做『死亡之吻』」,但很不幸今天就是碰上这个情况。

在演讲中余英时提到西方历史学家汤因比(Arnold Joseph Toynbee)以「文明」做为历史研究的单位。研究者应该考察一个文明自身的发展逻辑,而不是以西方为标准,决定一个文明是「进步」或「落后」。但余英时也强调,不以西方为基准,并不表示中国文明不能改变发展方向去和普世价值联结。

余英时说中国学术重人文,「人的尊严」在论语、孟子裡到处都是。中国没有人权这样的特定观念,但思想裡确实有人权的实质内涵。

余英时更强调,台湾的实践经验因此格外珍贵。台湾之所以值得重视,是因为台湾是几千年来中国第一次靠选举,以民主自由的制度取得政权,这是很宝贵的,有这个才有真正的人权和法治可言。

从这样的观念出发,本台记者问道,现今中国和美国国力日渐接近,不少人认为再这样下去,两国国力势必发生激烈碰撞。这也可以定性为「文明冲突」吗?

对此,余英时认为中、美若有冲突,也不是「文明冲突」,因为中共不能做为中华文化的代表。「共产党还是共产党」,因此中美两国基本上还是在原有的「极权」和「反极权」的冲突继续存在,这是最基本的本质,因为共产党没有改变。

面对香港民主进程问题,余英时表示共产党根本不可能容忍任何可能挑战他「一党专政」的反对行动。一旦发生,它势必要镇压到底。

但余英时也强调镇压这样的手段有时而穷:历史上没有一个像希特勒、斯大林或是秦治皇这样的政权,可以靠着暴力维持到底的。现在中共的暴力不断升级,稍微有异议的人士就抓起来,几个人在街上谈话也可以抓起来。如果到这个地步,接下来会发生中共意想不到的问题。

转载自自由亚洲电台

色欲心起,即为大过

Posted: 21 Sep 2014 02:15 AM PDT

真相网2014.9.21】转载自明慧网

(一)

明朝正德年间,有个读书人,名叫赵永贞,他在少年的时候,曾经遇到一位异人告诉他说:'你二十三岁的时候,必定会考中功名。'等到他廿三岁那年参加乡试,文章写得极好,主考官早已经决定选中他的文章好几天了;不料到了后场的考试,他却是连连的失误,结果没有考中。赵永贞的心中,感到非常的难过;因此就向文昌帝君祈求托梦,告诉他不中的原因;文昌帝君就说:'你原本可以考中今年的乡试,但是因为你近来调戏你家的婢女,引诱邻居的女儿,虽然都没有成真;然而你的起心颠倒,意淫缠绵不断,心地日益的转暗;所以你命中原有的功名,因此而被消除了。'

永贞听了帝君的解说,痛哭流涕,发誓并决心改过,大做善事。于是就刻印戒淫的善书,以警醒世人。结果在下次的乡试中,永贞果然考中了解元,做官做到了藩宪。

(二)

有位叫行蕴的僧人,有一次他见到了莲花,忽然动了淫欲的想法。当天晚上,就有一位妇人来敲他的门。行蕴打开门看,见到门外站了一位女子,而且还带了一个丫环,并且自称道:'我是莲花娘子。'而这位女子容光照人,极为美丽,行蕴见了十分的高兴,就与她情意缠绵的谈起话来。一会儿,蜡烛就熄灭了,隔壁的侍者听到行蕴叫苦的声音,和女子厉声的对他说道:'你为什么妄起淫心,假若我真的是女子,也不会肯跟你苟合啊!'侍者听到之后,就立刻跑去邀集寺里其他的僧众赶来,大家合力破门而入,只看到了两个夜叉,而行蕴已经身首异处了。(《太平广记》卷第三百五十七)

(三)

虽然把状元的名字隐藏起来,但这同样是一个真实的故事:

清朝末年,有一个举子进京赴考,住进一家客栈,老板娘是新寡的少妇。因大雪封路,无法前行,连住几天。孤男寡女,天天对望,日久生情,就动了念头了。在起了淫念之后,举子到寡妇房前欲举手敲门,忽然想到:"不可以!我是去考状元的,这一进去要是犯了淫,天庭会除名的,回去吧!"他这边回去了,她那边却起了念头,想去找他了。一出门,心里想到:"咦!不可以,我是个寡妇,应该为丈夫守住贞节才对,怎么看到年轻人就忘了本份,不可以,回去吧!"为丈夫守节,守得贞操清白,死后可以升天的;但若是寡妇犯淫,这个罪恶也足以令她下地狱的。所以这个寡妇想到这里,就回房去了。

男的回去以后,禁不住欲火的煎熬,又来到女的门前,敲了门。寡妇就起来开门时,那男的又赶快跑掉,因为他又觉得不可以这样做,怕犯了淫会被革名。古人讲,纵然你有很好的学问,命中注定是状元,倘若犯了淫,或是造了恶,天庭会除去你的状元名份的。所以他趁女的将要开门,赶快回头去了。但是那个女的已经知道了,也跟过来敲他的门,而内心又挣扎地告诉自己,不可以失节,又回去了。就这样来来回回走了两三次。最后一次,这个男的起来开了门。两个人在那边犹犹豫豫,又想要,又想不可以这样做。

就在这要成不成的时候,听到空中有声音说话了:"你们两个王八蛋要干又不干,把我的功过簿画得稀巴烂!"说完就甩下一个东西来。他们两个听到这些话吓得发抖,赶快捡起来看,原来是一本"功过簿",上面有他们的名字:一个今科状元,犯淫革名,打叉画掉了;一个是守节寡妇,死后升天,现在犯淫,也画掉了。再看看,又写"不犯",勾上去;再看下面,又写"犯",又画掉;然后又是"不犯",勾上去;"犯",画掉。把这本功过簿又画又勾,弄得一塌糊涂。这两个人一看,赶快各自回房,从此再也不敢犯淫念了。

人心生一念,天地尽皆知。以前误认为只要行为上不犯,只生淫念,起色欲之心,没有实质的行为,便没有罪过或罪过是轻的。现在看来不是这样啊!明朝的吕青死而复生,听一位冥官讲,凡是人一动了邪淫的欲念,就是大过。如果神明若不如实记录申报,将其隐匿或是漏掉,就连对于专管这件事的神明来说都是大过啊!所以人要想得福报,还是趁早摒弃邪淫妄念。因为色欲心一起,即为大过,自招祸患。从此改变命运,损福折寿,恶运相随,其实皆为自取。对于一个修炼人就更严重,色欲之心一起,千古修炼的机缘也许毁于一旦了!

http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2011/3/21/237882.html

http://www.clearwisdom.net/html/articles/2011/6/3/125783.html

Traditional Chinese Culture: Three Short Stories Illustrate How A Sin is Committed With Even One Thought of Lust
June 03, 2011

First Story

During the reign of Emperor Zhengde (1505 - 1521 A.D.) in the Ming Dynasty, there was a man named Zhao Yongzhen. When he was young, he met a fortune-teller who told him: "You will surely win first place in the provincial civil service examination and obtain fame and fortune when you are twenty three years old."

When young Zhao took the provincial civil service examination, he wrote an excellent article. The examiner decided to choose his article. But, against all of his expectations, he failed all the later exams and thus did not pass the provincial civil service examination. He was very upset and in a dream, he asked the Imperial Deity of Wenchang (the authority in charge of education and examinations) why he failed the exam. The Deity replied: "You were supposed to win first place in the provincial civil service examination, but recently you peeped at your maid out of lust and flirted with the girl next door. Although you did not actually touch these women, you were lustful in mind. This is the reason why you have been deprived of the honor!"

After hearing what the Deity said, Yongzhen burst into tears. He pledged to rectify his mistakes and do a lot of good deeds. He wrote a book encouraging people to guard their chastity and to refrain from lustful thoughts and behavior. As a result he won the first place in the next imperial civil service examination. Later in his career, Zhao Yongzhen was made a feudal lord responsible for guarding a region.

Second Story

There once was a monk named Xingyun. One day he saw a lotus flower and suddenly had a lustful thought. That night, a woman came knocking on his door. Xingyun opened the door and saw the woman and a maiden standing outside the door. The woman said: "I am the Lotus Lady." Xingyun was very pleased to see the beautiful lady and started talking to her affectionately. After a while the candle went out. The waiter next door heard Xingyun crying and a woman harshly tell him: "Why did you have lustful thoughts? Even if I were really a woman, I would not agree to have sex with you!" The waiter immediately ran to get other monks to come over. They broke into the room and saw only two demons while Xingyun had been decapitated. ("Tailing Guangji" Volume Three Hundred and Fifty Seven)

Third Story

During the last years of the Qing Dynasty, a candidate was going to Beijing for the provincial civil service examination. The manager of the hotel where he was staying was a recently widowed woman. Due to heavy snow blocking the road, he was forced to stayed at the hotel for a few days longer. After a few days of staring at each other, they fell in love and started to have lustful thoughts. The candidate went to the widow's room and was about to knock on the door when he suddenly thought: "No, I can't do this. I'm going to take the provincial civil service examination. If I step inside and have an affair with her, I will be deprived of first-place in the exam by heaven. I have to go back!" While he went back to his room, the widow started thinking about him. She stepped out the door and thought: "No! I am a widow and should hold chastity for my husband. How could I forget about this after seeing a young man? No, I have to go back!" (It is held in Chinese mythology that if a widow holds chastity for her husband and remains clean, she will go to heaven after death; but if a widow is guilty of adultery, the sin is enough to make her go to hell.) So, the widow went back to her room.

After the man returned to his room, he could not contain his burning desire, so he went back to the widow's door and knocked. Before she opened the door, he quickly dashed away, realizing that he should not be there. He was afraid of being deprived of fame and fortune because of adultery. There is an ancient saying that, even if you have very good knowledge and are destined to win first place at the provincial civil examination, if you are guilty of adultery or have committed evil deeds, your first place status will be removed by heaven. So he went back to his room before the widow opened the door. However, the widow already knew he was there, so she went to knock on his door. She also struggled, telling herself that she should not be disloyal. So she went back. They went back and forth like this two or three times. The last time, the man opened the door, but they stood there hesitating, wanting to do it, but also feeling afraid.

At that moment they heard a voice in the air: "Hey! You both wanted to do it, and then were afraid to do it, over and over. My notebook is all messed up!" They heard something thrown down. The man and the widow both trembled. They quickly picked up the notebook that appeared at their feet. It turned out to be the "Merits and Demerits Book". Their names were in the book: a first-place winner in the provincial civil service examination, whose name was crossed out after being guilty of adultery; a widow who was supposed to go to heaven after being loyal, and the name was crossed out after committing adultery. Looking more closely, there was the word "not committed", and the names were checked back. Then below that, the word "guilty" was written, and the names crossed out. Then below that was the word "not committed", and names checked back. Then "guilty" with the names crossed out. The notebook was all messed up with crosses and checks. After seeing this, the two went back to their rooms and would not dare to have lustful thoughts again.

*****

Each thought arising in one's heart is known by heaven and earth. I mistakenly thought that it's alright to have lustful thoughts as long as one does not commit the deeds. Without actual deeds there would be no sin, or the sin is light. It seems I was wrong.

When Lu Qing from the Ming Dynasty came back from the dead, he heard an official in hell telling him that it is a serious sin to have lustful thoughts. If the gods do not record the thoughts truthfully, this is also a big sin for the gods who are in charge of these matters.

Therefore, if one wants good fortune, one needs to get rid of evil and lustful thoughts immediately. Because once a thought of lust arises, it's a big sin and will bring nothing good. One's life is changed forever and one will lose good fortune, or one's life may even be shortened. Bad fortune will come, and it can be said to be one's own fault.

It's even more serious for a practitioner, as one's precious opportunity to cultivate might be ruined by one thought of lust!

《往事微痕》坐共产党牢我“不以为耻,反以为荣”很愿回忆它

Posted: 21 Sep 2014 02:09 AM PDT

真相网2014.9.21】人老了总愿意回忆;就是坐监狱的往事也令我神驰。我行年七十有七,有幸64年中都是在共产党治下生活的。像党报常说的:在"伟光正"党领导下,生活在"幸福的毛泽东时代"。期间22年的青壮年时期是在劳改监狱中渡过的。坐共产党的监狱我"不以为耻,反以为荣",很愿意回忆它。

1957年共产党以本党整风之名,用"阳谋"的方法在知识分子中抓人,这一次给这批要抓的人起名叫"资产阶级右派分子"。我当时在中央第一机械工业部工作,因为犯了"右派言论罪",戴上了右派帽子(注1)。共产党和政府(下简称:党府)"宽大为怀",对"敌矛"右派,按"内矛"处理(注2)。我于1958年2月14日被抓进北京市第一监狱。从此,我在各个监狱辗转关押劳改了22年,到1979年8月23日才把我放出来。26岁抓进去,48岁放出来。用小流氓的话说,是"劳改油子"了。于是我成了劳教右派中"迎来送往"的人——迎后进监狱的,送先出监狱的。

党府对"右派言论犯罪"的劳改系列分为五个级别:劳动察看、监督劳动、强制劳动、劳动教养、劳动改造。从强制劳动那一级开始,动用警察看管之。比如稍后几年创立的北京天堂河农场,就是强劳农场,它的管理方式较劳动教养宽松一点。在北京,就是将你"解除劳教"了,也是"二劳改"(注3),在所谓"就业"队劳动,并不允许到社会上自谋职业。在党府意识中还是"社会危险分子"。

据我的经历所了解的,从关入监狱的级别看,对右派分子大部分是劳动教养一级,少数直接投入劳改(经法院判刑),或由劳教升级为判刑劳改。

从关入监狱的时间看,北京市市政机关、民主党派、中央机关、高校中专学生、教育界、文艺界、工矿企业的右派们,凡是需要抓到监狱看管的,抓入时间,第一个高峰,大多数是在1958年2到5月之间,少数在5月份以后。经历的路线大体是三条:从机关学校抓到第一监狱(北京半步桥),再分别转押到①茶淀农场,或者②兴凯湖农场,或者③洮河农场。从人数上看,以转押到茶淀农场的占多数。北京市关入监狱劳改工厂农场的右派总数有多少,党府档案未公开,无从知晓。仅我所在的茶淀农场,在1958年9月右派集中到三分厂后,共编成了四个大队,约500余人。散落在其他分场未被集中的,估计不少于300人,总数800人。其他两地农场,各以400人估算,则北京市被抓入监狱的右派,应在1600人到1800人之间。

在北京,抓右派进监狱,不限于1958年初整风结束时期。第二个抓进监狱的高峰,是在1960年。那时发生了中华史上空前的人祸,和平时期三年中饿死了三千多万城乡居民。这一次抓进的右派,大多数是按原处分,如劳动察看再升级为劳动教养或劳动改造的。据我所知,北京在挨饿时期升级抓进来的右派,他们的分配路线基本上不到农场了,大部分是到北苑、良乡等劳改局所属工厂。为什么?因为那时(1960年)我所在的茶淀农场于家岭分场正是一个死人的坟墓。我是那里还有一口气苟延残喘的活人。几次合并小组(因为一个组走、死了一半,就只能两个组并在一起)。记得1960年末,我所在的组只有我们两个人,晚上也没有警察进大院里来"晚点"了(注4),没有电灯没有人声,一片漆黑,是一个死的世界。在这种情况下,显然不可能把新关进来的右派再送进此地。

升级关押改造的右派分子有多少,也不能期望党府能够公开。但也有一点追寻的线索:到1962年5月至8月之间,北京市公安局将各地各监狱(工厂、农场)关押的右派,都集中在北京南郊团河农场。这时,像我这样1958年抓进来的,在集中的140多人中也就剩下三分之一了,约50人。其余90人左右,都是1958年后升级进来的。

由1958年5月,估计关押的1600多右派罪犯,到四年后的1962年5月,就剩下50名左右的"精华"了;那些没有集中到团河农场的,去向有二:第一,饿死了。还有自杀的。比如:我知道的,第一机械工业部四人两名饿死(三局卢苇、汽车局何德一)一名自杀(汽车局徐某),就剩我一个。第二,解除劳教就业,少量回原籍了。茶淀农场饿死的右派有多少,同样是党府的机密,千古之迷也——我估计不会少于300人,他们长眠在"五八六"(注5)荒野里。

下面我叙述一下全过程和最后结局。

劳动教养的关押时间:

北京市对劳教右派关押时间的处理,可能是全国没有先例的。

(1)1958年2—5月抓进监狱,一律不定期限(这比判刑劳改尤甚之)。一直关押到1961年5月24日,对大多数右派,此时已经关押了3到3年半。

(2)1961年5月24日茶淀农场各分场集中一起开大会,会上由一个转业大兵宣布每名抓进来的右派劳动教养定期。有1年、2年、3年的(我被定期3年)。

(3)但是这个定期,从宣布之日算起!那么以前关押的3年多算什么呢?党府从来不做答复和解释——我的理解是:用警察手段将你与世隔绝,因为"不拿枪的敌人"比拿枪的敌人更可恨——防民之口甚于防川也。

(4)宣判定期三年者当然继续关押了,到1964年5月23日应该放人了。没有那回事!党府连对这些劳教人员都再一次失信!实在匪夷所思。不知世界司法史上有无先例——"伟光正"者此之谓也!

(5)那么,关押到何时呢?我们问党府的管教队长,答曰:不知道。继续劳改,又过了六年,到了1969年10月。这时,"伟光正"党的头号消灭了原2号,新2号发布了"清除令"。于是共和国前主席和他当年命名次序为第五的右派,被一起清除了北京;殊途同归,同国家主席一起押送"离京"对后者也算"荣幸之至"!

(6)1969年10月以后,"伟光正"党"九大"新的权力分配告一段落了。有了林氏的清除令,北京市党府不能不处理我们这些牛鬼蛇神了。于是,这一批已经关押11年多的150多名右派,有了以下去向:

①三大城市(北京、上海、天津)有家者,解除劳教,不论摘帽与否,一律发配到晋东南长治地区王庄煤矿"苦役的干活",约90多人;

②家在其他城市的,属于解除劳教者,不论摘帽与否,一律遣返,由原籍党府公安局处理,或关押或自谋出路,据了解大部分仍送去"二劳改",如四川省就是。约20多人。

③家在三大城市,既不解除劳教也不摘帽的"死顽固分子",约30余人,押送河北省公安厅管辖的沙河农场(地处邯郸地区沙河县)继续关押改造,其中有我(后来又升级到8年劳改)。其他人在1970年以"社会危险分子"的名称,交"冀鲁豫老解放区"进行群众专政、管制。当局认为那里的"革命"群众觉悟高,会管好这些右派。此时有个别的人"原始罪行"不是右派,例如文化名人张东荪的孙子张鹤慈、遇罗克的妹妹遇罗锦(女队),就和我们关在一个农场里。

以上,是我经历的北京市劳教右派的全过程,作为历史陈迹,记录于此。